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Issue 1 2006



Spray drying of dairy products: a review

9 March 2006 | By Pierre Schuck, Science et Technologie du Lait et de l'CEuf, Inra-Agrocampus

Milk is extremely perishable and yet, for a number of reasons, it has to be preserved for later consumption. The removal of water prevents the growth of micro-organisms and facilitates preservation and storage of milk constituents. Spray drying is one of the most convenient techniques for producing milk powders and…


If you can’t kill them, control them

9 March 2006 | By Peter de Jong and Meike te Giffel, NIZO food research, The Netherlands

In the food industry the operation costs are governed by fouling. Typically, processes applied in the dairy industry that operate below 80°C are limited by adherence and growth of micro-organisms in the equipment. Above 80°C the run time is limited by deposition of proteins and minerals. Besides the limited run…


Effects of milk processing on odour and taste

9 March 2006 | By Wolfgang Hoffmann, Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Location Kiel, Katja Borcherding, G.C. Hahn & Co., Lübeck, Matthias Denker, Marijana Parat-Wilhelms, Andrea Luger and Hans Steinhart, Department of Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany

The popularity of milky coffee beverages is based on its energising effect and special flavour. This is particularly true with younger consumers, who reject traditional beverages with evaporated milk or coffee cream, and prefer products with relatively high amounts of milk as it softens the bitter coffee taste effectively. Numerous…


Pulsed Electric Field pasteurisation of foods

9 March 2006 | By Huub L.M. Lelieveld

To have food available all year round, preservation is essential. However, traditional preservation methods such as drying, salting, acidifying, fermenting and heat treatments, whilst providing specific advantages, also have drawbacks. These include negative effects on colour, flavour and concentration of nutrients such as vitamins. New methods are emerging and one…


What changes occur in chocolate during conching?

9 March 2006 | By Mike Gray, Manufacturing Support Advisor, Nestle Product Technology Centre

Chocolate conching is not a precisely defined process and there are still elements of skill in producing a good flavoursome chocolate with the right viscosity for making sweets. This article is an introduction to what goes on in the conche and demonstrates how complex a process conching is. A conche,…


Troubleshooting chocolate problems

9 March 2006 | By Eric Schmoyer, R&D Laboratory Manager, R.M. Palmer

Determining the cause of line problems and correcting them without creating excessive down time can be a trying experience. This article will cover some of the more common problems found in chocolate and coating production of hollow, solid, one shot, and enrobed items from pre-molding considerations to demolding of finished…


Standards in meat processing explained

9 March 2006 | By Emma West, Meat Industry Inspection Specialist, EFSIS

The meat industry has, deservedly or not, been the subject of much adverse media comment in recent years. Recognised standards, inspected by independent third party auditors, are a key tool in building and maintaining consumer confidence. This article examines how standards work in the modern meat processing sector.


Sanitary design principles for meat processing

9 March 2006 | By Skip Seward, Vice President, Regulatory Affairs, American Meat Institute

Hygienic manufacture of food and beverage is a theme closely allied to New Food. A major contribution toward the goal of safe food production is ensuring that processing equipment is designed with this in mind. The European Hygienic Engineering Design Group (EHEDG) provide regular contributions describing their work and principles…


Fluid flow in cleaning of closed processes

9 March 2006 | By Assistant Professor Bo Boye Busk Jensen and Associate Professor Alan Friis, Food Biotechnology and Engineering, BioCentrum-DTU

The efficiency of Cleaning-In-Place (CIP) procedures greatly depends on fluid flow (i.e. the motion of detergent and rinsing water). Thorough understanding of the physical action of fluid flow during cleaning allows for redesign of equipment and design of CIP procedures with respect to optimal cleaning characteristics. This article discusses the…