Flavour technology - Articles and news items
Industry news • 2 March 2016 • Victoria White
The aim of the collaboration is to co-develop novel fermentation routes to produce several undisclosed ingredients with broad applications in the flavour and fragrance industry….
Industry news • 11 February 2016 • Victoria White
Cysteine is an amino acid that is widely used as a raw material for food products and flavourings…
Industry news • 14 December 2015 • Victoria White
Frutarom has signed an agreement for the purchase of 100% of the shares of Sagema of Austria and Wiberg of Germany for approximately $130.4 million, and Inventive Technology Ltd. and Prowin International Ltd. for $17 million…
Industry news • 24 November 2015 • Victoria White
Thaumatin is a multi-functional food additive derived from the fruit Thaumatococcus Danielli that improves the taste profile of foods and beverages…
Issue 2 2013 • 26 April 2013 • Martina Lapierre, Flavour Technologist, PepsiCo
“The sensory threshold for difference detection can be considered to occur when there is a 30 per cent decrease in the concentration of a flavourant”. Flavourings are concentrated aroma chemical systems used in food and beverage formulations and as such are important in the provision of aroma and taste. Their sources can vary – differing mainly in type, source, cost and complexity.
Issue 1 2013 • 28 February 2013 • Jane Parker, Flavour Centre, Reading University
The flavour of processed foods has changed significantly over the last 50 years. Think back to the days of the early stock cubes or the original powdered desserts which bore only a passing resemblance to the real flavour. Since then, the food industry has been involved in a continuous programme of flavour development, made possible by significant advances in chromatography and an increased understanding of the flavour chemistry involved. Flavour development was inspired in the 1970s and 1980s by increased foreign travel and a desire for the more exotic spices, but currently the major influence is the drive for healthy alternatives requiring reformulation of products to use less fat, less sugar and less salt. In addition, consumer pressure has led to the notion of ‘clean labels’, requiring retailers to remove MSG from products and use only natural or ‘store-cupboard’ ingredients.
Issue 5 2012 • 6 November 2012 • Charles W. Bamforth, Anheuser-Busch Endowed Professor of Malting & Brewing Sciences at UC Davis
It has variously been estimated that there are between 1,000 and 2,000 different chemical species in beer, probably twice as many as are present in wine. It is an extraordinarily complex liquid. Not all of those chemical components make a substantial contribution to the quality of beer, but many do. And brewers strive to control that chemistry, so that every drop of a given brand of beer is fit for purpose – in other words it delivers the same excellent quality glass by glass.
The chemical composition of beer is determined by the raw materials of brewing and by changes that occur during the malting and brewing processes.
Quantitatively, by far the major component of all beers (except a couple of latter day products with ludicrous alcohol levels exceeding 50 per cent alcohol by volume, ABV) is water. Most beers are at least 90 per cent water. Ethanol weighs in next, with most beers worldwide being within the range four to six per cent ABV (which equates to approximately 3.2 – 4.7 per cent alcohol by weight, the specific gravity of ethanol being 0.79). And then there is carbon dioxide, CO2, which might be as low as 2g/L in traditional English cask-conditioned ale or in excess of 7g/L in a hefeweissen.
Issue 4 2012 • 6 September 2012 • Angela Ryan and Alison Hemesley, Nestlé Product Technology Centre
It’s been almost 500 years since Aztec Emperor Moctezuma reputedly introduced Hernando Cortéz to his favourite cocoa-based beverage Xocolatl, but our demand for cocoa and more recently chocolate has continued to grow ever since. Today, world cocoa production is estimated to be 3990 million metric tons and the major cocoa producing countries are Ivory Coast, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, Cameroon and Brazil1.
A schematic of the chocolate manufacturing process is shown in Figure 1. The first stage, which is critical to the flavour of the final product, is fermentation, which triggers spontaneously on opening cocoa pods. This exposes the beans and surrounding mucilaginous pulp to attack by microorganisms initiating the formation of flavour compounds and precursors. Ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acids are formed, sucrose is hydrolysed to the reducing sugars glucose and fructose, proteins are degraded leading to an increase in the concentration of peptides and free amino acids and in addition, soluble poly – phenols, such as epicatechin, polymerise leading to a reduction in astringency2,3. However, if pods are harvested before the beans are sufficiently mature, the precursors cannot be formed and little flavour will develop during the later stages of processing2.
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