Fermentation - Articles and news items
Industry news • 14 April 2015 • Victoria White
New research reveals the taste and colour of Pinot Noir depends on the methods used to produce it and the chemicals added during the production process…
Issue 2 2014 • 1 May 2014 • Linda F. Bisson, Professor & Geneticist, Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis
Wine production is inherently a microbial process wherein components of the grape are transformed into flavour and aroma characteristics of the wine. If wine is a symphony of sensorial experiences then the grape precursors are the instruments and the microbes are the members of the orchestra. Wine fermentations may be inoculated with specific preparations of organisms or may be left to ferment by the indigenous populations of the vineyard and winery. Microbial population dynamics can be influenced by seemingly inconsequential processing decisions and some microbial characters may be desired in some wines but considered spoilage in others. Fermentation management strategies must take into consideration the style of wine being made, the inherent risks of different processing decisions and seasonal or vintage variation in composition of both fruit and microbial biota…
Issue 5 2012 • 6 November 2012 • François Bourdichon, Nestlé Research Centre; Joerg Seifert, International Dairy Federation and Egon Bech Hansen, Technical University of Denmark
Fermentation as a chemical process was initially described in the mid-19th century by Louis Pasteur as ‘a vie sans l’air’, the metabolic process of deriving energy from organic compounds without the involvement of an exogenous oxidising agent. Fermentation, as a process for manufacturing fermented foods, is today used more broadly than the historical definition of fermentation. Fermented foods have been subjected to the action of microorganisms during which desirable biochemical changes occur, causing significant modification to the food matrix2,13.
Fermented foods are typically associated with local and traditional food consumption. The growing body of evidence with regard to microorganisms and their ecological role in the food matrix has led to industrial application of the process of fermentation starting in the early 20th century through use of specific dedicated microbiota with various levels of characterisation.
In recent decades, the use of microbial food cultures (MFC) has come under various regulatory frameworks in many countries, directly or indirectly. Several of these regulatory frameworks put emphasis on ‘the history of use’, ‘traditional food’, or ‘general recognition of safety’ without clear guidelines for the expected level of evidence.
Issue 6 2011 • 4 January 2012 • Susanna Buratti and Gabriella Giovanelli, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Milan
The rapid pace of change in the wine industry calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. NIR and MIR spectroscopy combined with sensory-instrumental methods (electronic nose and electronic tongue) can provide an ideal solution to monitor molecular and sensory changes in wine during alcoholic fermentation. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of NIR and MIR spectroscopy, electronic nose and electronic tongue associated with chemometric data analysis to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Micro-fermentation trials were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 vintages in Valtellina viticultural area (Northern Italy). During fermentation, at each sampling time, spectra were collected by FT-NIR and FT-IR spectrometers and samples were analysed by electronic nose and electronic tongue. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate sugar, phenolic compounds, ethanol and glycerol concentrations. Various multivariate statistical methods were applied in order to obtain regression and classification models.
One of the most promising directions for the development of new methods is the application of sensor systems, whose speed and on-line capabilities meet the demand of automation and continuous process control. Electronic nose and electronic tongue are technological attempts to mimic human senses. Both devices consist of chemical sensor arrays, coupled with an appropriate pattern recognition system able to produce a fingerprint of the product.
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