Extrusion - Articles and news items
Issue 2 2016 • 26 April 2016 • Pat Higgins, Head of Business Development, the Queally Group
In 1996 we were asked by an existing customer to supply their frozen pasta range to their operations in the UK and EU. We appointed a dedicated team to research pasta manufacturing, raw material and ingredient sourcing, product attributes and – most importantly – the market for pasta products…
Featured news • 19 February 2016 • ABF Ingredients
PGP International has a track record of innovation and a proactive focus on applications for high performing extruded products and right now pea proteins are proving to be a bit of a hero…
Issue 6 2015 • 9 December 2015 • Doug Baldwin, Vice President, Food and Industrial Products at Wenger Manufacturing Inc.
Doug Baldwin, Vice President, Food and Industrial Products at Wenger Manufacturing Inc. discusses new trends in extruded snacks…
Issue 2 2015 • 23 April 2015 • Dr Sajid Alavi, Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University
Pasta products such as spaghetti and macaroni are usually made from wheat semolina. Wheat has a unique property of forming an extensible, elastic and cohesive mass when mixed with water due to its gluten proteins, and this lends to pasta the desired strength, integrity of cooked product and low cooking losses. Durum wheat is most commonly used for pasta as it has the right mix and concentration of gluten proteins (primarily gliadin and glutenin) for making good quality pasta…
Issue 5 2014 • 27 October 2014 • Frank A. Manthey and Elena de la Peña, North Dakota State University
Formation of gluten-based dough requires the presence of gluten proteins, gliadin and glutenin, moisture, and energy. Gliadin and glutenin proteins are storage proteins that accumulate in wheat endosperm cells during grain filling. Gliadins are a heterogenous group of single chain proteins that are responsible for dough cohesiveness. Gliadin proteins can be separated using electrophoresis into four groups: α-gliadins, β-gliadins, γ-gliadins, and ω-gliadins. α-Gliadins, β-gliadins, and γ-gliadins contain intrachain disulfide bonds, whereas ω-gliadins lack cysteine residues, a sulfur containing amino acid, and so cannot form disulfide bonds…
Issue 2 2014 • 1 May 2014 • Frédéric Robin, Christophe Dautremont and Hélène Chanvrier, Nestlé Product Technology Center
Extrusion cooking is extensively used by the food industry to deliver light and delightful cereal-based products. Improving the nutrition of extruded cereal products while maintaining consumer preference can be achieved by incorporating health-promoting ingredients. These nutritious food components have a significant impact on a product’s organoleptic properties and can lead to major technical challenges. Providing a winning taste, texture and appearance for consumers can only be achieved through a deep understanding of the impact of these new ingredients on the parameters driving consumer preference…
Issue 3 2013 • 19 June 2013 • Eugenio Bortone, Senior Scientist, Extrusion Innovation Team, Frito-Lay North America
The extrusion process can involve simple formulations such as the ones used for snack foods consisting of simple starch or very complex formulations as the ones used in pet food diets which involve several ingredients. The latter are designed specifically to meet the nutritional requirements of the target species. In contrast, snack foods are designed to indulge the consumer. Not only does each ingredient in the formula play an important role in the amount of nutrients it supplies, but each also interacts with others during the process to produce the final product. Depending on the processing conditions and the ingredients used, different products can have an effect on the physical attributes (e.g. expansion) of the finished product as well as organoleptic properties (e.g. texture, flavour, mouth feel etc.).
Issue 3 2013 • 19 June 2013 • Professor Donald J. McMahon, Western Dairy, Utah State University
Health regulators seek to reduce dietary fat intake and sodium intake by stipulating that cheeses should be made with lower fat and lower salt contents. However, both fat and salt contribute to cheese flavour, and fat especially impacts cheese appearance, texture and melting. Cheese is adversely affected by fat and salt reductions, and such cheeses have not been well accepted by consumers.
Issue 6 2012 • 11 January 2013 • Mian N Riaz, Head of Extrusion Technology Program, Food Protein R&D Center, Texas A&M University
Today, rice is one of the most important food crops in developing countries and it is considered staple food in many parts of the world. Rice is also becoming much more important in the United States, Europe, Asia and Middle East. However, concerns have been raised because it is high in starch and low in other essential nutrients. Another issue of concern is the breakage of rice kernels in the milling process, and these broken kernels are not generally accepted by consumers. Extrusion technology, which can be used to produce fortified rice, or rice analogues, can present a solution to both these problems, since desired nutrients / micronutrients can be incorporated in appropriate quantities in the rice mainly incorporating these nutrients in rice flour as the base material.
Rice is one of the leading food crops and sustains two-third of the world’s population, providing 20 per cent of the world’s dietary energy supply. Despite being a primary food, rice is low in protein and high in starch. The low protein levels in rice cause deficiencies of protein and some essential amino acids in people who take it as their primary diet. For example, lysine, which is responsible for proper growth of the human body, is the essential amino acid found in the lowest quantity in rice.
Issue 2 2012 • 1 May 2012 • Mian N. Riaz, Head Extrusion Technology Program, Food Protein R&D Center, Texas A&M University and Brian Plattner, Process Engineering Manager, Wenger Manufacturing Co
Pasta is a common source of carbohydrates in our diet today. Production and consumption of pasta products vary depending on the region of the world and culinary traditions within a society. Italy ranks as the highest consumer of pasta in the world at nearly 26 kilograms per capita, which is nearly double its next closest competitor, Venezuela1.
Most pasta products on the market, outside of instant noodles, are made from durum wheat semolina, and are processed via low temp – erature extrusion (less than 50°C)2. After extrusion and drying, these traditional pasta products have very low starch gelatinisation levels (less than 50 per cent) and must be cooked before serving. These products can also be treated to produce precooked pasta. This is accomplished after the conventional extrusion press process by a cooking stage in which the formed pasta is subjected to a steam or water bath followed by drying.
Another way to make a fully cooked pasta product without additional treatment is with extrusion cooking3. Typically, a twin screw extruder is used to wet the dough and cook and extrude it under high pressures and temperatures ranging from 90 to 110°C. This results in pasta products that can be rehydrated in three to eight minutes and they resemble the texture of those products made via a conventional process.
Issue 4 2010 • 26 August 2010 • Mian N. Riaz, Head of Extrusion Technology Program, Texas A&M University
The world cereal yield was 2,219 million tons in 2009, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation1. Cereal grains are grown all over the world and provide more food energy than any other type of crop, they are therefore staple crops. Cereals can be consumed in their natural form as whole grain and they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils and protein. However, some cereals are processed using different methods where bran and germ are removed; the remaining endocarp is mostly carbohydrate and lacks the majority of the other nutrients.
In some developing nations, grain is in the form of rice, wheat, or maize (in American termin – ology: corn), which constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. Cereals are processed using different methods to develop several cereal products that are consumed on a daily basis. One of the most commonly used processing methods for cereal is extrusion. This technology is used to develop breakfast cereal, extruded snacks, cereal based ingredients and several other cereals based on extruded food products.
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